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something happens repeatedly. • how often something happens. • one action follows another. • things in general. • with verbs like (to love, to. This grammar section explains English grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used and there are interactive. In this free Grammar tutorial, you'll get the grammar help you need to avoid making grammatical mistakes in your writing and in life. CORENGTH The range of paths for engineers and managers including. If there is use for any. You can also lighting you'll find our routers are functions under layers.

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Grammarians and linguists make grammatical rules so that people can learn and use languages easily. Grammarians are the scholars who study, teach, write and research systax and grammatical rules for their sheer love and passion for it.

They are often native speakers of the language they deal with. Linguists, on the other hand, are language nerds who love dissecting languages and finding similarities and dissimilarities between different languages around the world. These language and grammar nerds list out the existing rules within a language as well as their exceptions and those become the grammatical rules. Languages have a tendency to evolve and change with time depending on who use them and where. English grammar has been rather rigid in the sense that grammarians and linguists have laid down rules depending on what was believed to be the correct use of the language at the time.

With time nevertheless, English has become the language of the entire world and so the grammatical rules started evolving with the cultures and linguistic differences of its new speakers depending on their geopolitical locations. Learning a language is like learning the most important aspect of a nation. English is a language which has crossed its national boundary for a long time now. English is spoken in almost all the countries of the world as an international language.

As a result, this language has many varieties now. However, among these varieties, the standard form of English still is and will be regarded as the most prestigious and accepted form of English. Apparently, learning the standard form of English with the understanding of how it works incorporates paramount importance. This project is an attempt to provide the learners with the basic grammatical structures in an easily comprehensible style.

This website will give you a complete understanding of the structures and the ways of developing sentences in English. You will find a complete list of the topics and sub-topics on the first page of the website and you will be able to access them easily. The topics are discussed thoroughly with lots of examples and explanations. You will also find the exception of the common structures noted and explained with each topic.

This website will provide you with a complete grammar book and on top of that, you will find the topics interlinked so that you can access them easily. It is generally presumed that grammar only helps the ESL English as a Second Language learners to write correct English and native speakers do not need grammar to write without mistakes.

This website will also help the native speakers of English use their language consciously and correctly. We have tried our best to produce an innovative but comprehensible approach to learn English grammar. However, we know that there is a lot of scope for improvements. We will deeply appreciate your suggestions and comments and try to improve the contents. Learn English. Rarely, nouns illustrating things with no gender are referred to with a gendered pronoun to convey familiarity.

It is also standard to use the gender-neutral pronoun it. English determiners constitute a relatively small class of words. They include the articles the and a[n] ; certain demonstrative and interrogative words such as this , that , and which ; possessives such as my and whose the role of determiner can also be played by noun possessive forms such as John's and the girl's ; various quantifying words like all , some , many , various ; and numerals one , two , etc.

There are also many phrases such as a couple of that can play the role of determiners. Determiners are used in the formation of noun phrases see above. Many words that serve as determiners can also be used as pronouns this , that , many , etc. Determiners can be used in certain combinations, such as all the water and the many problems. In many contexts, it is required for a noun phrase to be completed with an article or some other determiner.

It is not grammatical to say just cat sat on table ; one must say my cat sat on the table. The most common situations in which a complete noun phrase can be formed without a determiner are when it refers generally to a whole class or concept as in dogs are dangerous and beauty is subjective and when it is a name Jane , Spain , etc. This is discussed in more detail at English articles and Zero article in English.

Pronouns are a relatively small, closed class of words that function in the place of nouns or noun phrases. They include personal pronouns , demonstrative pronouns , relative pronouns , interrogative pronouns , and some others, mainly indefinite pronouns. The full set of English pronouns is presented in the following table. Nonstandard, informal and archaic forms are in italics. The personal pronouns of modern standard English are presented in the table above.

They are I, you, she, he, it, we , and they. The personal pronouns are so-called not because they apply to persons which other pronouns also do , but because they participate in the system of grammatical person 1st, 2nd, 3rd. The second-person forms such as you are used with both singular and plural reference. In the Southern United States, y'all you all is used as a plural form, and various other phrases such as you guys are used in other places.

An archaic set of second-person pronouns used for singular reference is thou , thee, thyself, thy, thine, which are still used in religious services and can be seen in older works, such as Shakespeare's—in such texts, the you set of pronouns are used for plural reference, or with singular reference as a formal V-form.

You can also be used as an indefinite pronoun , referring to a person in general see generic you , compared to the more formal alternative, one reflexive oneself , possessive one's. The third-person singular forms are differentiated according to the sex of the referent.

For example, she is used to refer to a female person, sometimes a female animal, and sometimes an object to which female characteristics are attributed, such as a ship or a country. A male person, and sometimes a male animal, is referred to using he. In other cases, it can be used. See Gender in English. The word it can also be used as a dummy subject , concerning abstract ideas like time, weather, etc. The third-person form they is used with both plural and singular referents.

Historically, singular they was restricted to quantificational constructions such as Each employee should clean their desk and referential cases where the referent's gender was unknown. However, it is increasingly used when the referent's gender is irrelevant or when the referent is neither male nor female. The possessive determiners such as my are used as determiners together with nouns, as in my old man , some of his friends. The second possessive forms like mine are used when they do not qualify a noun: as pronouns, as in mine is bigger than yours , and as predicates, as in this one is mine.

Note also the construction a friend of mine meaning "someone who is my friend". See English possessive for more details. The demonstrative pronouns of English are this plural these , and that plural those , as in these are good, I like that. Note that all four words can also be used as determiners followed by a noun , as in those cars. The interrogative pronouns are who , what , and which all of them can take the suffix -ever for emphasis.

The pronoun who refers to a person or people; it has an oblique form whom though in informal contexts this is usually replaced by who , and a possessive form pronoun or determiner whose. The pronoun what refers to things or abstracts. The word which is used to ask about alternatives from what is seen as a closed set: which of the books do you like best? It can also be an interrogative determiner: which book? Which , who , and what can be either singular or plural, although who and what often take a singular verb regardless of any supposed number.

For more information see who. In Old and Middle English, the roles of the three words were different from their roles today. A small holdover of this is the ability of relative but not interrogative whose to refer to non-persons e. All the interrogative pronouns can also be used as relative pronouns, though what is quite limited in its use; [1] see below for more details.

The main relative pronouns in English are who with its derived forms whom and whose , which , and that. The relative pronoun which refers to things rather than persons, as in the shirt, which used to be red, is faded.

For persons, who is used the man who saw me was tall. The oblique case form of who is whom , as in the man whom I saw was tall , although in informal registers who is commonly used in place of whom. The possessive form of who is whose for example, the man whose car is missing ; however the use of whose is not restricted to persons one can say an idea whose time has come.

The word that as a relative pronoun is normally found only in restrictive relative clauses unlike which and who , which can be used in both restrictive and unrestrictive clauses. It can refer to either persons or things, and cannot follow a preposition. For example, one can say the song that [or which ] I listened to yesterday , but the song to which [not to that ] I listened yesterday.

The relative pronoun that is usually pronounced with a reduced vowel schwa , and hence differently from the demonstrative that see Weak and strong forms in English. If that is not the subject of the relative clause, it can be omitted the song I listened to yesterday. The word what can be used to form a free relative clause — one that has no antecedent and that serves as a complete noun phrase in itself, as in I like what he likes.

The words whatever and whichever can be used similarly, in the role of either pronouns whatever he likes or determiners whatever book he likes. When referring to persons, who ever and whom ever can be used in a similar way but not as determiners. The word there is used as a pronoun in some sentences, playing the role of a dummy subject , normally of an intransitive verb.

The "logical subject" of the verb then appears as a complement after the verb. This use of there occurs most commonly with forms of the verb be in existential clauses , to refer to the presence or existence of something. For example: There is a heaven ; There are two cups on the table ; There have been a lot of problems lately.

It can also be used with other verbs: There exist two major variants ; There occurred a very strange incident. The dummy subject takes the number singular or plural of the logical subject complement , hence it takes a plural verb if the complement is plural. In informal English, however, the contraction there's is often used for both singular and plural.

The dummy subject can undergo inversion , Is there a test today? It can also appear without a corresponding logical subject, in short sentences and question tags : There wasn't a discussion, was there? There was. The word there in such sentences has sometimes been analyzed as an adverb , or as a dummy predicate , rather than as a pronoun. The English reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another. Although they are written with a space, they're best thought of as single words.

No consistent distinction in meaning or use can be found between them. Like the reflexive pronouns, their use is limited to contexts where an antecedent precedes it. In the case of the reciprocals, they need to appear in the same clause as the antecedent. Other pronouns in English are often identical in form to determiners especially quantifiers , such as many , a little , etc.

Sometimes, the pronoun form is different, as with none corresponding to the determiner no , nothing , everyone , somebody , etc. Many examples are listed as indefinite pronouns. Another indefinite or impersonal pronoun is one with its reflexive form oneself and possessive one's , which is a more formal alternative to generic you. Most verbs have three or four inflected forms in addition to the base form: a third-person singular present tense form in - e s writes , botches , a present participle and gerund form in -ing writing , a past tense wrote , and — though often identical to the past tense form — a past participle written.

Regular verbs have identical past tense and past participle forms in -ed , but there are or so irregular English verbs with different forms see list. The verb be has the largest number of irregular forms am, is, are in the present tense, was, were in the past tense, been for the past participle. Most of what are often referred to as verb tenses or sometimes aspects in English are formed using auxiliary verbs.

The auxiliaries shall and should sometimes replace will and would in the first person. For the uses of these various verb forms, see English verbs and English clause syntax. The basic form of the verb be, write, play is used as the infinitive , although there is also a "to-infinitive" to be , to write , to play used in many syntactical constructions.

There are also infinitives corresponding to other aspects: to have written , to be writing , to have been writing. The second-person imperative is identical to the basic infinitive; other imperative forms may be made with let let us go , or let's go ; let them eat cake. A form identical to the infinitive can be used as a present subjunctive in certain contexts: It is important that he follow them or There is also a past subjunctive distinct from the simple past only in the possible use of were instead of was , used in some conditional sentences and similar: if I were or was rich For details see English subjunctive.

The passive voice is formed using the verb be in the appropriate tense or form with the past participle of the verb in question: cars are driven, he was killed, I am being tickled, it is nice to be pampered , etc. The performer of the action may be introduced in a prepositional phrase with by as in they were killed by the invaders. The English modal verbs consist of the core modals can , could , may , might , must , shall , should , will , would , as well as ought to , had better , and in some uses dare and need.

The modals are used with the basic infinitive form of a verb I can swim, he may be killed , we dare not move , need they go? Modals can indicate the condition, probability, possibility, necessity, obligation and ability exposed by the speaker's or writer's attitude or expression. The copula be , along with the modal verbs and the other auxiliaries , form a distinct class, sometimes called " special verbs " or simply "auxiliaries".

I could not Apart from those already mentioned, this class may also include used to although the forms did he use to? It also includes the auxiliary do does , did ; this is used with the basic infinitive of other verbs those not belonging to the "special verbs" class to make their question and negation forms, as well as emphatic forms do I like you?

For more details of this, see do -support. Some forms of the copula and auxiliaries often appear as contractions , as in I'm for I am , you'd for you would or you had , and John's for John is. For detail see English auxiliaries and contractions. A verb together with its dependents, excluding its subject , may be identified as a verb phrase although this concept is not acknowledged in all theories of grammar [22].

A verb phrase headed by a finite verb may also be called a predicate. The dependents may be objects , complements, and modifiers adverbs or adverbial phrases. In English, objects and complements nearly always come after the verb; a direct object precedes other complements such as prepositional phrases, but if there is an indirect object as well, expressed without a preposition, then that precedes the direct object: give me the book , but give the book to me.

Certain verb—modifier combinations, particularly when they have independent meaning such as take on and get up , are known as " phrasal verbs ". For details of possible patterns, see English clause syntax. See the Non-finite clauses section of that article for verb phrases headed by non-finite verb forms, such as infinitives and participles. English adjectives , as with other word classes, cannot in general be identified as such by their form, [23] although many of them are formed from nouns or other words by the addition of a suffix, such as -al habitual , -ful blissful , -ic atomic , -ish impish , youngish , -ous hazardous , etc.

Adjectives may be used attributively , as part of a noun phrase nearly always preceding the noun they modify; for exceptions see postpositive adjective , as in the big house , or predicatively , as in the house is big. Certain adjectives are restricted to one or other use; for example, drunken is attributive a drunken sailor , while drunk is usually predicative the sailor was drunk.

Many adjectives have comparative and superlative forms in -er and -est , [24] such as faster and fastest from the positive form fast. Spelling rules which maintain pronunciation apply to suffixing adjectives just as they do for similar treatment of regular past tense formation ; these cover consonant doubling as in bigger and biggest , from big and the change of y to i after consonants as in happier and happiest , from happy.

The adjectives good and bad have the irregular forms better, best and worse, worst ; also far becomes farther, farthest or further, furthest. The adjective old for which the regular older and oldest are usual also has the irregular forms elder and eldest , these generally being restricted to use in comparing siblings and in certain independent uses. For the comparison of adverbs, see Adverbs below. Many adjectives, however, particularly those that are longer and less common, do not have inflected comparative and superlative forms.

Instead, they can be qualified with more and most , as in beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful this construction is also sometimes used even for adjectives for which inflected forms do exist. Certain adjectives are classed as ungradable. Consequently, comparative and superlative forms of such adjectives are not normally used, except in a figurative, humorous or imprecise context.

Similarly, such adjectives are not normally qualified with modifiers of degree such as very and fairly , although with some of them it is idiomatic to use adverbs such as completely. Another type of adjective sometimes considered ungradable is those that represent an extreme degree of some property, such as delicious and terrified.

An adjective phrase is a group of words that plays the role of an adjective in a sentence. It usually has a single adjective as its head , to which modifiers and complements may be added. Adjectives can be modified by a preceding adverb or adverb phrase, as in very warm , truly imposing , more than a little excited.

Some can also be preceded by a noun or quantitative phrase, as in fat-free , two-meter-long. An adjective phrase may include both modifiers before the adjective and a complement after it, as in very difficult to put away. Adjective phrases containing complements after the adjective cannot normally be used as attributive adjectives before a noun. Exceptions include very brief and often established phrases such as easy-to-use. Certain complements can be moved to after the noun, leaving the adjective before the noun, as in a better man than you , a hard nut to crack.

Certain attributive adjective phrases are formed from other parts of speech, without any adjective as their head, as in a two-bedroom house , a no-jeans policy. Adverbs perform a wide range of functions. They typically modify verbs or verb phrases , adjectives or adjectival phrases , or other adverbs or adverbial phrases. Many English adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding the ending -ly , as in hopefully , widely , theoretically for details of spelling and etymology, see -ly.

Certain words can be used as both adjectives and adverbs, such as fast , straight , and hard ; these are flat adverbs. In earlier usage more flat adverbs were accepted in formal usage; many of these survive in idioms and colloquially. That's just plain ugly.

Some adjectives can also be used as flat adverbs when they actually describe the subject. The adverb corresponding to the adjective good is well note that bad forms the regular badly , although ill is occasionally used in some phrases. There are also many adverbs that are not derived from adjectives, [26] including adverbs of time, of frequency, of place, of degree and with other meanings. Some suffixes that are commonly used to form adverbs from nouns are -ward[s] as in homeward[s] and -wise as in lengthwise.

Most adverbs form comparatives and superlatives by modification with more and most : often , more often , most often ; smoothly , more smoothly , most smoothly see also comparison of adjectives , above. However, a few adverbs retain irregular inflection for comparative and superlative forms: [26] much , more , most ; a little , less , least ; well , better , best ; badly , worse , worst ; far , further farther , furthest farthest ; or follow the regular adjectival inflection: fast , faster , fastest ; soon , sooner , soonest ; etc.

Adverbs indicating the manner of an action are generally placed after the verb and its objects We considered the proposal carefully , although other positions are often possible We carefully considered the proposal. Many adverbs of frequency, degree, certainty, etc. Adverbs that provide a connection with previous information such as next , then , however , and those that provide the context such as time or place for a sentence, are typically placed at the start of the sentence: Yesterday we went on a shopping expedition.

When there is more than one types of adverb, they usually appear in the order: manner, place, time His arm was hurt severely at home yesterday. A special type of adverb is the adverbial particle used to form phrasal verbs such as up in pick up , on in get on , etc. If such a verb also has an object, then the particle may precede or follow the object, although it will normally follow the object if the object is a pronoun pick the pen up or pick up the pen , but pick it up.

An adverb phrase is a phrase that acts as an adverb within a sentence. For example: very sleepily ; all too suddenly ; oddly enough ; perhaps shockingly for us. Another very common type of adverb phrase is the prepositional phrase , which consists of a preposition and its object: in the pool ; after two years ; for the sake of harmony.

Prepositions form a closed word class, [27] although there are also certain phrases that serve as prepositions, such as in front of. A single preposition may have a variety of meanings, often including temporal, spatial and abstract. Many words that are prepositions can also serve as adverbs.

Examples of common English prepositions including phrasal instances are of , in , on , over , under , to , from , with , in front of , behind , opposite , by , before , after , during , through , in spite of or despite , between , among , etc.

A preposition is usually used with a noun phrase as its complement. A preposition together with its complement is called a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase can be used as a complement or post-modifier of a noun in a noun phrase, as in the man in the car , the start of the fight ; as a complement of a verb or adjective, as in deal with the problem , proud of oneself ; or generally as an adverb phrase see above.

English allows the use of "stranded" prepositions. This can occur in interrogative and relative clauses , where the interrogative or relative pronoun that is the preposition's complement is moved to the start fronted , leaving the preposition in place. This kind of structure is avoided in some kinds of formal English. For example:. Stranded prepositions can also arise in passive voice constructions and other uses of passive past participial phrases , where the complement in a prepositional phrase can become zero in the same way that a verb's direct object would: it was looked at ; I will be operated on ; get your teeth seen to.

The same can happen in certain uses of infinitive phrases: he is nice to talk to ; this is the page to make copies of. Conjunctions express a variety of logical relations between items, phrases, clauses and sentences. These can be used in many grammatical contexts to link two or more items of equal grammatical status, [32] for example:.

There are also correlative conjunctions , where as well as the basic conjunction, an additional element appears before the first of the items being linked. Subordinating conjunctions make relations between clauses, making the clause in which they appear into a subordinate clause.

Subordinating conjunction generally comes at the very start of its clause, although many of them can be preceded by qualifying adverbs, as in probably because The conjunction that can be omitted after certain verbs, as in she told us that she was ready. Although English has largely lost its case system, personal pronouns still have three morphological cases that are simplified forms of the nominative , objective and genitive cases : [35].

Most English personal pronouns have five forms: the nominative and oblique case forms, the possessive case , which has both a determiner form such as my , our and a distinct independent form such as mine , ours with two exceptions: the third person singular masculine and the third person singular neuter it , which use the same form for both determiner and independent [ his car , it is his ] , and a distinct reflexive or intensive form such as myself , ourselves.

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English Grammar Course For Beginners: Basic English Grammar

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