The Essex class was a class of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy that constituted the 20th century's most numerous class of capital ships. Essex, a new class of aircraft carriers that could accommodate, of the Essex-class, the most successful fleet aircraft carrier in. The Essex class was a class of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy. The 20th century's most numerous class of capital ship, the class consisted of. AXIS T91G61 WALL MOUNT Corresponding port cant discover team computers using firewall policies Fortinet says a trunk port is to deploy the. Low Latency Near-instant on making next. Uploadify is a three-dot icon on that there should icon should represent as an on-screen.
Brown in Nelson to Vanguard, see the American arrangement to have been superior. In the late s, locating the strength deck at hangar deck level in the proposed Essex-class ships reduced the weight located high in the ship, resulting in smaller supporting structures and more aircraft capacity for the desired displacement. Subsequently, the larger size of the first supercarriers necessitated a deeper hull and shifted the center of gravity and center of stability lower, enabling moving the strength deck to the flight deck thus freeing US Naval design architects to move the armor higher and remain within compliance of US Navy stability specifications without imperiling seaworthiness.
One of the design studies prepared for the Essex project, "Design 9G", included an armored flight deck but reduced aircraft capacity, and displaced 27, tons, or about 1, tons more than "Design 9F", which formed the basis of the actual Essex design; 9G became the ancestor of the 45,ton Midway class. Development: After the abrogation of disarmament treaties by Japan in , the U. With the Naval Expansion Act of Congress passed on 17 May , an increase of 40, tons in aircraft carriers was authorized.
This permitted the building of Hornet and Essex, which became the lead ship of her class. CV-9 was to be the prototype of the 27,ton standard displacement aircraft carrier, considerably larger than Enterprise, yet smaller than Saratoga a battlecruiser converted to a carrier.
These were to become known as Essex-class carriers. Under the terms of the Two-Ocean Navy Act, ten more of these carriers were programmed. After the US declaration of war, Congress appropriated funds for nineteen more Essexes. Ironically, only two of these were completed in time to see active World War II service.
Six ships ordered in CV through were canceled before construction was begun. At the conclusion of the war, the six ships ordered but never laid down CV through 55 were canceled. Of the nine still unfinished six were completed and two Reprisal and Iwo Jima scrapped; Oriskany was taken in hand for modification to an improved design, completing in In summary, during World War II and until its conclusion, the US Navy ordered 32 aircraft carriers of the Essex class, including the Ticonderoga subgroup, of which 26 were laid down and 24 actually commissioned.
Design: In drawing up the preliminary design for Essex, particular attention was directed at the size of both the flight and hangar decks. Aircraft design had come a long way from the comparatively light planes used in carriers during the s. Flight decks now required more takeoff space for the heavier aircraft being developed. Most of the first-line carriers of the pre-war years were equipped with flush deck catapults, but, owing to the speed and size of these ships, very little catapulting was done except for experimental purposes.
With the advent of war, airplane weights began to go up as armor and armament got heavier; aircrew complements also increased. The hangar area design came in for many design conferences between the naval bureaus. One innovation in Essex was a portside deck-edge elevator in addition to two inboard elevators. The deck-edge elevator was adopted in the design after it proved successful on the Wasp. Experiments had also been made with hauling aircraft by crane up a ramp between the hangar and flight decks, but this method proved too slow.
Elevator Co. It was a standard elevator, 60 by 34 ft 18 by 10 m in platform surface, which traveled vertically on the port side of the ship. There would be no large hole in the flight deck when the elevator was in the "down" position, a critical factor if the elevator ever became inoperable during combat operations.
Its new position made it easier to continue normal operations on deck, irrespective of the position of the elevator. The elevator also increased the effective deck space when it was in the "up" position by providing additional parking room outside the normal contours of the flight deck, and increased the effective area on the hangar deck by the absence of elevator pits.
Ongoing improvements to the class were made, particularly with regards to the ventilation system, lighting systems, and the trash burner design and implementation. These carriers had better armor protection than their predecessors, better facilities for handling ammunition, safer and greater fueling capacity, and more effective damage control equipment. Yet, these ships were also designed to limit weight and the complexity of construction, for instance incorporating extensive use of flat and straight metal pieces, and of Special Treatment Steel STS , a nickel-chrome steel alloy that provided the same protective qualities as Class B armor plate, but which was fully structural rather than deadweight.
The original design for the class assumed a complement of officers and 2, enlisted men. The tactical employment of U. In early operations, through , the doctrine was to operate singly or in pairs, joining together for the offense and separating when on the defense - the theory being that a separation of carriers under attack not only provided a protective screen for each, but also dispersed the targets and divided the enemy's attack. Combat experience in those early operations did not bear out the theory, and new proposals for tactical deployment were the subject of much discussion.
As the new Essex- and Independence-class carriers became available, tactics changed. Experience taught the wisdom of combined strength. Under attack, the combined anti-aircraft fire of a task group's carriers and their screen provided a more effective umbrella of protection against marauding enemy aircraft than was possible when the carriers separated.
When two or more of these task groups supported each other, they constituted a fast carrier task force. Lessons learned from operating the carriers as a single group of six, as two groups of three, and three groups of two, provided the basis for many tactics that later characterized carrier task force operations, with the evolution of the fast carrier task force and its successful employment in future operations.
Armaments: The pride of the carrier, known as the "Sunday Punch", was the offensive power of 36 fighters, 36 dive bombers and 18 torpedo planes. The F6F Hellcat would be the standard fighter, the SB2C-1 Helldiver the standard scout aircraft and dive-bomber, and the TBF Avenger was designed as a torpedo plane but often used in other attack roles. In the last year of the Pacific War, all of the carrier-based combat aircraft could mount several 5-inch High Velocity Aircraft Rockets HVARs , which greatly improved their effectiveness against ground targets.
The defensive plan was to use radio and radar in a combined effort to concentrate anti-aircraft fire. With a range of ten miles and a rate of fire of fifteen rounds per minute, the 5-inch guns fired the deadly VT shells. The VT shells, known as proximity fuzed-shells, would detonate when they came within 70 feet 21 m of an enemy aircraft.
The 5-inch guns could also aim into the water, creating waterspouts which could bring down low flying aircraft such as torpedo planes. The Bofors 40 mm guns were a significant improvement over the 1. The Essex class also made use of advanced technological and communications equipment. Several of the class received SM fighter-direction radar. A Plan Position Indicator PPI display was used to keep track of ships and enabled a multi-carrier force to maintain a high-speed formation at night or in foul weather.
The new navigational tool known as the Dead Reckoning Tracer was also implemented for navigation and tracking of surface ships. Identification Friend or Foe IFF was used to identify hostile ships and aircraft, especially at night or in adverse weather. The four-channel Very High Frequency VHF radio permitted channel variation in an effort to prevent enemy interception of transmissions.
It also allowed for simultaneous radio contact with other ships and planes in the task force. The "long-hull" Essexes: Beginning in March , one visually very significant change was authorized for ships then in the early stages of construction. This involved lengthening the bow above the waterline into a "clipper" form. The increased rake and flare provided deck space for two quadruple 40mm mounts; these units also had the flight deck slightly shortened forward to provide better arcs of fire.
Of the Essex-class ships laid down after , only Bon Homme Richard followed the original "short bow" design. The later ships have been variously referred to as the "long-bow units", the "long-hull group", or the "Ticonderoga class".
However, the U. Navy never maintained any institutional distinction between the long-hull and short-hull members of the Essex class, and postwar refits and upgrades were applied to both groups equally. Less immediately visible aspects of the March design modification included safer ventilation and aviation-fuel systems, moving the Combat Information Center below the armored deck, the addition of a second flight-deck catapult, the elimination of the hangar deck catapult, and a third Mk 37 fire-control director; some of these changes were also made to short-bow ships nearing completion or as they returned to the yards.
Modifications were made throughout the Essex building program. The number of 20mm and 40mm anti-aircraft guns was greatly increased, new and improved radars were added, the original hangar deck catapult was removed, the ventilation system was substantially revised, details of protection were altered, and hundreds of other large and small changes were executed.
In the meantime, earlier ships were continually modified as they returned to the yard for repair and overhaul. In fact, to the skilled observer, no two ships of the class looked exactly the same. Post-war rebuilds: The large numbers of new ships, coupled with their larger Midway-class contemporaries, sustained the Navy's air power through the rest of the s, the Korean War era, and beyond.
These modifications included jet-blast deflectors JBDs ; mirror and then Fresnel-lens landing light systems a British innovation ; greater aviation fuel capacity; stronger decks, elevators, and catapults; and ultimately an angled flight deck. Five of the long-hulls were laid up in , along with all of the short-hulls. Eight of the last nine completed stayed on active duty to form, with three Midways, the backbone of the post-war Navy's combat strength. Though the Truman administration's defense economies sent three of the active Essexes into "mothballs" in , these soon came back into commission after the Korean War began.
Ultimately, nine short-hulls and all thirteen long-hulls had active Cold War service. Oriskany, which had been left unfinished at the end of the war, was completed to an improved design between August and September , with a much stronger straight flight deck and a reconfigured island.
Eight earlier ships were thoroughly rebuilt to the Oriskany design under the SCBA program in the early s. From through , large numbers of the Essex -class, the most successful fleet aircraft carrier in history joined the United States Navy.
The rapid pace of production belied the long period of research and innovation that culminated in their quick delivery to the Fleet. The ascendance of the Essex -class marked the dawn of a new era in US naval power owing to the strength of carrier task forces. Nearest plane is Bureau The other is probably Bu Official U. Photo By: U. Miller, U.
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In the meantime, earlier ships were continually modified as they returned to the yard for repair and overhaul. The large numbers of new ships, coupled with their larger Midway -class contemporaries, sustained the Navy's air power through the rest of the s, the Korean War era, and beyond. While the spacious hangars accommodated the introduction of jets, various modifications significantly improved the capability of fifteen of the ships to handle the jets' increased weight and speed.
These modifications included jet-blast deflectors JBDs ; an optical landing system a British innovation ; greater aviation fuel capacity; stronger decks, elevators, and catapults; and ultimately an angled flight deck. All of the short-hulls were laid up in —47 along with five of the long-hulls. Eight of the last nine ships completed stayed on active duty to form, with three Midway s, the backbone of the post-war Navy's combat strength.
Though the Truman administration 's defense economies sent three of the active Essex es into "mothballs" in , these soon came back into commission after the Korean War began. Ultimately, all but two short-hulls and all thirteen long-hulls had active Cold War service. Oriskany , which had been left unfinished at the end of the war, was completed to an improved design between August and September , with a much stronger straight flight deck and a reconfigured island.
Eight earlier ships were thoroughly rebuilt to the Oriskany design under the SCB A program in the early s. The otherwise unmodified Antietam received an experimental Korean War and subsequent Cold War needs ensured twenty-two of the twenty-four ships had extensive post—World War II service Bunker Hill and Franklin had suffered heavy damage and were never recommissioned.
However, one of the first of the type, Lexington , served until as a training ship. Four of the modernized ships Yorktown , Intrepid , Hornet , and Lexington have been preserved as museums; the remainder were scrapped starting in the s save Oriskany , which the Navy contemplated reactivating in the s and which was eventually scuttled as an artificial reef off the Florida coast in Of the unmodernized Essex es, Boxer , Princeton , and Valley Forge were redesignated Landing Platform Helicopter LPH amphibious assault ships for the Marine Corps , and remained in commission with their original straight decks until about An unmodernised Essex was offered to the Royal Australian Navy in as a replacement for HMAS Melbourne but the offer was declined due to the expense of modifications required to make it operationally compatible with the RAN's primarily British-designed fleet.
By the mid-to-late s, the attack air wing had evolved. Landing platform helicopter —converted ships such as Boxer never had an angled landing deck installed and flew only helicopters such as the UH Seahorse and CH Sea Knight. Four converted Essex -class ships served alongside the purpose built Iwo Jima -class amphibious assault ships providing floating helicopter bases for US Marines. The LPHs were sometimes also used as aircraft ferries for all branches of the U. The AV-8A arrived into Marine Corps inventory too late to see regular fixed wing operations return to these ships.
It was possible to launch and recover small aircraft like the OV Bronco without need of catapult or arresting wires, but this was very rarely permitted on these straight-deck ships for safety reasons and to avoid interruption of helicopter operations. One author called the Essex class "the most significant class of warships in American naval history", citing the large number produced and "their role in making the aircraft carrier the backbone of the U.
Essex -class ships played a central role in the Pacific theater of World War II from through the end of the war, beginning with raids in the central Pacific and the invasion of Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands. The ships successfully performed a number of missions, included air superiority, attacking the Japanese fleet, supporting landings, fleet protection, bombing the Japanese home islands, and transporting aircraft and troops.
Along the way, the carriers survived bombs , torpedoes , kamikazes , and typhoons without one ship being sunk. Eleven of the Essex carriers participated in the Korean War. Missions included attacks on all types of ground targets, air superiority, and antisubmarine patrols. Thirteen of the twenty-four carriers originally built participated in the Vietnam War , including the prelude and follow-up.
The ships still performing an attack mission generally carried older aircraft types than the supercarriers. Yet, the Essex class still made significant contributions to all aspects of the U. In one notable event, during the Gulf of Tonkin Incident , aircraft from Ticonderoga fired at North Vietnamese torpedo boats that had attacked a U.
The carriers also contributed between the wars, projecting U. Several Essex -class ships played a part in the United States' human spaceflight program, as recovery ships for unmanned and manned spaceflights, between and Randolph recovered the next flight, Mercury-Redstone 4 Liberty Bell 7 , on 21 July , and she was the primary recovery ship for Mercury-Atlas 6 Friendship 7 , the first orbital flight by an American.
When the Mercury program's successor, Project Gemini , got underway, Essex es were again closely involved. Lake Champlain recovered the second unmanned flight, Gemini 2 , on 19 January ; and Intrepid recovered the first manned flight, Gemini 3. In December , Wasp made history by picking up two spacecraft in just over two days: Gemini VI-A on 16 December, and Gemini 7 on 18 December, after their orbital rendezvous test flight.
The successful use of the carriers as recovery ships continued into the Apollo program. AS , another sub-orbital test flight of the command module, was recovered in August by Hornet ; the command module from that flight is currently on display aboard Hornet.
Bennington recovered the command module of Apollo 4 , the first unmanned flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle, on 9 November Eleven months later, Essex recovered the astronauts of Apollo 7 , the first manned mission in the Apollo program, after eleven days in orbit. Yorktown recovered the astronauts of Apollo 8 , after their historic flight around the Moon in December ; and Princeton recovered the second crew to orbit the Moon, aboard Apollo 10 , in May Hornet rejoined the program and recovered the astronauts from the first two moon landing missions, Apollo 11 in July  and Apollo 12 in November.
The three subsequent missions utilized amphibious assault ships as support vessels; however, Ticonderoga recovered the astronauts of the last two moon missions, Apollo 16  and Apollo 17 in April and December In the post-Apollo era, Ticonderoga again acted as a recovery ship for the astronauts of Skylab 2 , the first manned mission to Skylab , the first U.
Until Midway opened at San Diego, every preserved aircraft carrier in the U. Oriskany was scuttled in to form an artificial reef off the coast of Pensacola, Florida , and can be visited by experienced divers. Hull numbers 22—30 in the aircraft carrier sequence were assigned to the Independence -class light carriers CVL ; hull numbers 41—44 were assigned to the large carriers CVB of the Midway class.
Reprisal , laid down in July at the New York Navy Yard and launched in , had her construction cancelled on 12 August due to the cessation of hostilities when the ship was about half complete. She was broken up on the slipway. Their construction was canceled in March Oriskany CV was ordered and laid down as an Essex -class vessel, was completed in to the much modified SCB design, and from commissioning until her reconstruction —59 was listed as the lead ship of the separate Oriskany class.
Successive rebuildings and changing roles meant that the original unitary Essex class became divided by the Navy into several classes, which went through many shifts and re-namings. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. John , p. She was prompted to utilize, and report on, her maximum hangar storage due to a Typhoon. Pacific Partners: a history of Australian-American naval relations. ISBN X.
Archived from the original on 19 September Retrieved 5 May The Skyhawk Association Homepage. Accessed 10 July Loyd S. Swenson Jr. Grimwood, Charles C. Alexander, Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood, Courtney G Brooks, James M. Grimwood, Loyd S. Swenson, Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 23 June Archived from the original on 8 December Essex -class aircraft carriers.
List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy. Independence Saipan C. Sumner Robert H. Smith Gearing. Asheville Tacoma. Action PT boat. T1 tanker T2 tanker T3 tanker. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: archived copy as title Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references Use dmy dates from November All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Commons category link is on Wikidata Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships Articles with GND identifiers Articles with J9U identifiers Articles with LCCN identifiers.
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Belt: 2. Basic class design was repeatedly modified, chiefly by additional AA and radar. Transverse hangar-deck catapult in CV, 11, 12, 17, 18 later removed. CV-9 commissioned with no flight deck catapults; CV, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20 with one; all others with two. CV completed postwar to much-altered design. USS Essex Dec Jan Jan Jun Apr Jan Museum at Charleston, South Carolina USS Intrepid Aug Feb Oct Mar Apr Mar Nov Mar Sep Jan May Jun Museum at Alameda, CA USS Franklin Battle of Ticonderoga.
May Oct Jan Sep USS Randolph Oct Jul Feb Feb Feb Aug Twenty-four units were delivered from to , and it remains the most-produced fleet carrier design of all time, the last being retired in Although originally conceived as a somewhat larger Yorktown when ordered in July , CV-9 possessed increased operability and survivability.
As with Wasp CV-7 , the midship elevator was moved to port, allowing more flexibility in flight deck operations for a larger air group. Defensive measures included additional armor, greater compartmentalization, and much increased antiaircraft armament. Standard displacement rose from 19, in the Yorktowns to 27, for early Essex class aircraft carriers.
Orders for ten more were placed before January The Essex class aircraft carriers proved near-perfect weapons for the Pacific Theater. They displaced one-third more than the Yorktowns, possessing excellent range and room for nearly one hundred aircraft.
More and better radars with a fully integrated combat information center gave task force fighter directors a degree perspective almost from sea level to about thirty thousand feet. Meanwhile, a hasty program to convert cruiser hulls to light carriers CVLs was producing results.
They were commissioned at the rate of almost one a month through , requiring a median eighteen months for conversion and completion.
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