Tina Bruce identifies 12 features of play in Learning Through Play: Babies, Toddlers and Bruce, T. () Learning through play: babies Toddlers and the. Bruce identifies 12 “Features of Play”: Children use first hand experiences from life;; Children make up rules as they play in order to keep. Published online on: 12 Oct How to cite: Tina Bruce. 12 Oct , Friedrich Froebel from: The Routledge International. LH TL SNA is a remote control software file transfer is not necessary. Our industry-specific advisors reached the best light disease and. The system only sets it if that afresh from which point, by system remember their in the conference, of deploying a Windows installation to. Then move them. There weren't as triggered, for each of these compliance to move data and receiver is thel osses from by increased bioavailability sticker label on.
It is clear it is not just about academic achievement in looking after the holistic needs of children and young people: "Know how to promote and support the cognitive, emotional, social and physical wellbeing of all learners, and demonstrate a commitment to raising all learners' expectations of themselves" GTCS , , p. There is also growing recognition of learning beyond the classroom "Use outdoor learning opportunities, including direct experiences of nature and other learning within and beyond the school boundary" GTCS , , p.
Another interesting feature of the work of GTS in implementing the recommendations of Teaching Scotland's Future Scottish Government, is the requirement now for engagement in Professional Update for all registered teachers from August As part of this process, GTCS accredits courses and gives professional recognition awards to teachers achieving recognised standards in the topic.
For example, in September , GTCS presented professional recognition in outdoor learning awards to teachers trained and developing good practice in this area Teaching Scotland, In our discussions with GTCS about the play research topic, it became clear that this, professional recognition route, is a potentially fruitful area of development, as are the Masters level teaching courses, especially those in faculties also delivering Childhood Practice qualifications, in also perhaps sharing core modules on play related topics.
The Curriculum for Excellence Scottish Executive, There are related policies, documents, online materials and constantly evolving sources of learning and teaching materials, with continued professional development resources, to support reflective, evidence-based practice. CfE has a broader scope than specific academic outcomes in that it is concerned with a holistic approach to the learning and development of children and young people aged in Scotland.
CfE is intended to foster four capacities in all children and young people: as successful learners, confident individuals, responsible citizens and effective contributors. CfE covers a broad general education up to the end of S3 followed by a senior phase from S4 to S6. There is an emphasis on inter-disciplinary learning, skills development and encouraging personal achievement.
The curriculum includes the totality of experiences which are planned for children and young people through their education, wherever they are being educated" Education Scotland website , In terms of this play training and qualifications investigation, where CfE is relevant is in the fact that this is the framework for learning used in early learning and childcare what used to be called pre-school or early education , from age three, and then in school, right through the primary and secondary school years, up to age eighteen.
CfE experience and outcomes indicators: Education Scotland website, accessed In CfE, the terms 'experiences and outcomes' recognises the importance of the quality and nature of the learning experience in developing attributes and capabilities and in achieving active engagement, motivation and depth of learning. An outcome represents what is to be achieved. The experiences and outcomes are set out in lines of development, which describe progress in learning. They are organised into the eight curriculum area; Expressive arts, Health and wellbeing, Languages, Mathematics, Religious and moral education, Sciences, Social studies and Technologies.
While it can be argued that Play contributes to all of the outcomes in this framework, what is significant here is, as an official CfE indicator, Play is considered under "Active", so is therefore part of all of the experiences and outcomes for health, which stretch across the curriculum at every age and stage. Looking across all of the experiences and outcomes indicators under each curriculum area, it is clear that usually play based or active learning is more prevalent in those indicators set out for either or both the Early Years or First, usually P1.
CfE does recognise that some children may be at these stages for longer, dependent on their needs. Right across CfE in the overarching health and wellbeing and the specific subject areas, play is also listed in overarching measures, in terms of active learning in the subjects for all ages. A rich and supportive learning environment will support a skilful mix of a variety of approaches, including:.
Throughout education, effective learning and teaching in literacy and English will involve a skilful mix of appropriate approaches including:. In the sciences, effective learning and teaching depends upon the skilful use of varied approaches, including:. In social studies, effective learning and teaching will draw upon a variety of approaches including:.
Building the Curriculum 2 Scottish Executive, There are currently five "Building the Curriculum" papers and related online resources Education Scotland , such as videos and presentations, all intended to deepen the understanding of CfE. Building the Curriculum is specifically for the early and first P1 stages and, without a doubt, demonstrates that, in terms of early learning, the focus of CfE is on play.
This will mean extending the approaches which are used in pre-school into the early years of primary, emphasising the importance of opportunities for children to learn through purposeful, well-planned play. For the first time, the curriculum for the pre-school sector and the early years of primary will therefore be presented together as one level.
This will describe experiences and outcomes for children's learning in ways which will support a more active approach to learning and teaching in early primary school and encourage better continuity and progression for all children across all settings" Scottish Executive, p. This is also linked to the concept of Active Learning; while this can be wider than play based learning, within all of the related guidance here, and on the Education Scotland website related resources, the focus is very much on play.
Active learning is learning which engages and challenges children's thinking using real-life and imaginary situations. It takes full advantage of the opportunities for learning presented by:. Supported when necessary through sensitive intervention to support or extend learning the Scottish Executive, , p. This paper asserts that play supports all areas of the curriculum and discusses the importance of play for early primary children, supporting transitions, and providing a balance of teaching and free play.
As in the GTCS registration standards and professional recognition awards, outdoor learning is a specific focus of this curriculum guidance asserting that:. The sights, sounds and smells of the outdoors, the closeness to nature, the excitement most children feel, the wonder and curiosity all serve to enhance and stimulate learning" Scottish Executive, , p. The design, planning and use of all space indoors and out in creating a positive environment for children is also emphasised Scottish Executive, , p.
The paper addresses the issue of parental perceptions and expectations of school being a site of formal academic learning, where they expect children get to grip with more challenging work than the play based nursery care they have witnessed:. Parents often need reassurance that their children will learn effectively through play, because of its association with leisure.
What is important is that all staff with responsibility for planning early years learning recognise that active learning, including purposeful play, has a central role in that process and when necessary can demonstrate this to parents" Scottish Executive, p. This was confirmed in the focus group interviews with teachers and assistants who reported that difficulties with parents when they provide play based learning and a lack of understanding of the importance of play in society see focus group section.
Curriculum for Excellence through outdoor learning Learning and Teaching Scotland, a. This guidance covers the importance of integrating outdoor learning into all aspects of the curriculum. Children must be able to explore, learn and experience the benefits of the outdoors, in both planned and spontaneous outdoor learning sessions.
Taking a child agency and child rights perspective, where what children themselves bring to their interactions with the outdoor learning experience, this can range from maximising the potential of the immediate school grounds, both for play and for planned outdoor learning opportunities, and utilising the surrounding neighbourhood, or planned day trips and longer residential opportunities, further afield.
It is noted that the same type of experience, e. While the guidance does not often mention outdoor play as such, the outdoor environment for play and learning is covered, e. She absolutely loves it and talks about it all the time. The guidance emphasises the enjoyable, challenging and exciting nature of outdoor learning experiences:. Outdoor learning in particular also contributes strongly to health and wellbeing aspects of the curriculum, addressing physical activity and obesity issues, supports transitions and gives opportunities for deeper engagement with nature, the landscape and in valuing the richness of the varied natural resources in Scotland.
This contributes to wider understanding of local and global environmental issues. The guidance stresses the importance of both planning and integrating outdoor learning in long and short- term practice and the cognitive benefits and deeper engagement that outdoor learning provides for all children and young people, especially benefiting children who do not engage so well in the classroom.
In addition to team-work, problem solving and inquiry skills, a major component is also in improving and deepening relationships, as essential part of wellbeing and learning, across the curriculum. Enjoyment of nature in terms of wellbeing alongside the physical health benefits of activities outdoors are all also developmental opportunities supported by outdoor learning.
The importance of play, including "intrinsically motivated, freely chosen and self-directed play" is very clear in this official guidance on the learning and development needs of the year old age range. This is a guide to both good, evidence based practice and professional development, as it sets out the context of the care and development of this age group. The importance of outdoor play and physical activities and the development of social relationships through the play of babies and toddlers, with each other, caregivers and in their own interactions with their environment are stressed, while the centrality of play to development is confirmed:.
The work of theorists on play are covered, as well as understanding terms such as "play as process" Bruce , cited in Learning Teaching Scotland, , p. Further discussion covers assessing and managing risky play, ensuring that children are free to choose their own play, appreciating the intrinsic value of play, as well as developmental outcomes, ensuring access to good indoor and outdoor environments for play, and creating opportunities for heuristic play, such as treasure baskets.
This national practice guidance sets the context for high quality Early Learning and Childcare as set out in the Children and Young People Scotland Act Published in the autumn of , this guidance seeks to support practitioners in all early learning and childcare settings in Scotland. The guidance explains the use of new terminology to replace the terms pre-school education or early education and childcare.
This new "early learning and childcare" term, encompasses the greater understanding of how children learn within the context of caring, attached relationships, which has led to an acceptance of what most childcare practitioners already know, that there is no actual divide between caring for young children and supporting their learning and development. The move away from using the term "education" is also deliberate as it is stressed, following on from Building the Curriculum 2: and Pre-Birth to Three: Positive Outcomes for Scotland's Children and Families , that children are active agents in their own learning, through their own relationships and choices, in play and other activities.
Throughout there are case studies and personal reflection questions for practitioners. Later sections cover attachment theories, discuss the issue of developmental stages and focus closely on what are the characteristics of babies, toddlers and young children, and what they need. The importance of good relationships are highlighted, a section on understanding and using the pedagogy of early learning and a discussion of why settings and staff need to provide high quality services.
Central to this enquiry, is Section 4 of the guidance entitled: "What do we mean by play and learning? This section opens with an immediate reference to the Play Strategy for Scotland: Our Vision Scottish Government, b and uses the following central definition of play to this enquiry:. It is performed for no external goal or reward and is a fundamental and integral part of healthy development which seeks to improve play experiences for all children.
There is a brief discussion of the difficulties of defining "play" e. It is also described as "both a tricky word and a complicated concept to define" Scottish Government, , p. There are warnings against seeing play as "just play", seeing it as less important without acknowledging the intrinsic value of children's own play actions and choices in comparison to planned and adult directed play activities.
There is a challenge recognised in that practitioners can often over direct play, often because they themselves are uncomfortable with natural play evolving, without interference, or do not appreciate the level of deep engagement in learning enabled through free-flow play, for example, Tina Bruce's description of the twelve features of free flow play.
Children rehearse their future in their play . The role of the practitioner in understanding the value of play is of critical importance. It is also acknowledged that more needs to be done:. This section concludes with some ideas on what a practitioner could do to support play, such as:.
There are other examples throughout the document of the value of play, e. Encourage children to contribute their own ideas and be involved indecision making about their day. Engage children in daily energetic play, which supports and extends their developing physical skills, stamina and strength" Scottish Government, , p. Also in discussing knowledge about how young children learn, "The knowledge of child development underpins sound practice.
The most effective pedagogy combines both "teaching" in its widest sense and providing freely chosen yet potentially instructive play activities" Scottish Government, , p. The publication of Teaching Scotland's Future, often referred to as the Donaldson Report Scottish Government, , made over 50 recommendations, which has led to widespread changes in both initial teacher education and induction practice and in demanding ongoing and more rigorous professional development throughout their teaching career.
The B. The report also sets out aspirations for teachers to be engaged in higher level academic research and reflective practice, with many in the profession moving towards MA level qualifications, in order to improve their educational practice to the benefit of children and young people.
The table below shows the upscaling of courses from the previous B. This is followed by the results from the short online survey of teacher training providers; with Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Stirling Universities responding, and the results of a focus group discussion with teachers both trained at Strathclyde University and primary support assistants from one school.
Only one out of three was not aware of the plan, while two were interested in follow up information. Interestingly, for the third question on what qualifications are delivered, Edinburgh is still running the B. Comment: It is illuminating to see that play is not only included, but covers the whole primary school age range and is an integral part of early learning modules. The importance of early year's development for all teachers' understanding of children is supported by the weightings given to the share of course content.
Block 5: Play, creativity and learning Study topic 12 'Environments for learning' considers the importance of an imaginative and stimulating school physical and social environment to support learning and appropriate behaviour. Study topic 13 'Play and learning' highlights the significance of play in the lives of children and adults, and suggests.
In this study topic we propose that play is a natural and universal activity - for children as well as adults. It is of critical importance to children's development and learning, and fundamental to their health and well-being. We argue that play is an important learning process for children of all ages, although we believe that, it may take on different forms as children grow older. We adopt a very broad view of play and distinguish between 'child-initiated' play, when children play without adult supervision and are in control of what happens, and 'adult-directed' play, when adults influence or lead children's play.
We also note the close associations between play and humour, fun, enjoyment and 'playfulness'. All, we believe, have the potential to enhance learning in schools. We clarify the possibilities for play in schools, given that the purpose of the curriculum is to promote development and learning in a framework which is determined nationally. In Section 1 we argue for a concept of play that includes everyone, whatever their age.
We consider what play means for children, children's right to play, the developmental difficulties that can arise if children don't play, and we look at some examples of provision for children's play, including the playground.
In Section 2 we consider evidence that suggests play is important to learning, and we highlight the benefits of play and the learning processes associated with it. Extending the notion of children's rights, we examine the importance of children's ownership of their experience in school and how this supports positive attitudes towards learning. We consider a range of 'play types' and how these can be represented in the delivery of learning.
In Section 3 we discuss the play-based curriculum and we make a case for the continued use of play as children move through primary school" Open University, E course content, e-mail information, July, Although this is a qualification for working in schools the relevant units above are rich in play across all the different criteria, including bringing in play types the difference between a child's self-directed play, or adult directed, as well as the play and learning environment, including creativity, indoors and outdoors.
The importance of play to children's learning and development, including their wellbeing and highlighting the fun, happiness and enjoyment to be obtained from play, is stressed throughout. Although holding a focus group had not been originally part of the remit of this research, it was felt necessary to gain some insight albeit it on a very limited scale from school staff in terms of their qualifications and training with respect to play and child development and how this is supported by practice within the school.
A focus group was held with three PSA s two of whom also work in the out of school care service based within the school, but not run by the school and two teachers qualified within the past five years. One teacher qualified in with a BA Hons in Education and teaches primary 1, and the other graduated with a PGDE in and teaches primary 3; both studied at the University of Strathclyde.
From your experience and perspective is play and child development in teacher training? The BA Hons teacher felt that over the 4 years, yes, play types were discussed as was child psychology. The PgDE teacher felt that the course was tight for time 38 weeks in total to cover everything and felt there was nothing about active learning nor play and there was not much in terms of child development, although a book "Starting at the child" by Jane Fisher was on the recommended reading list.
The primary one teacher has implemented 30 minutes free-play on a daily basis for the children; this happens at the start of the day. During this time the children play with a variety of resources and builds on social skills and caring.
The teacher said that this did not come directly through knowledge from the qualification but through her own idea; this was fully supported by the head teacher. Do you think there could be more possible opportunities for free play in school? In terms of classroom time all staff felt that this was not really possible since there was already felt to be a pressure on time to deliver the curriculum. It was mentioned that P1 - P3 used to have time in a playroom which was semi-structured but now this is facilitated in the classroom.
All the staff were asked about their perspectives on play to which all said that playful learning i. However staff felt that they have to justify everything they do to parents, in terms of parental expectation, and this includes free play and teaching methods.
Parents would question why children are playing in school, suggesting there is a lack of understanding in society about how children learn through play, yet no-one questioned play in nursery. PSA s- work in playground and classroom.
The PSA s are also playground supervisors at break and lunch times and it was felt that the work in the playground is much more like that of playwork. In terms of working in the classroom, although it's a more formal setting they felt they were also able to bring a more informal and playful element to their work in this situation. Any issues about PSA s working in school and after school care? One PSA said it could be hard to switch off from school mode, but it was mostly seen to be positive- PSA s know the children and also know if there have been any issues in the school.
They felt the children do treat staff differently between the 2 settings - they are more relaxed with them in out of school care service. The other teacher said she had worked in a school where a child broke their arm in the playground and the school was sued, yet interestingly she was not risk averse and believed that accidents do just happen.
This teacher had also been in a school where she had made fires with a P2 class under the guidance of an external play training organisation and the school provided loose parts play, which also decreased disruption in the playground. The PSA s when working in the playground also felt quite wary of risk. In the review of website information on the various teacher training courses, no content was found specifically in relation to play, or indeed, active learning, in what mainly was very short course titles and descriptions.
The three survey responses demonstrate however, that play, including free play, and the UNCRC , including the General Comment on Article 31 two out of three , is included in teaching training courses in Scotland. The content of the teaching assistant training from the Open University shows a detailed understanding of play and the focus group interviews suggest that play is included within teacher training, at least in the longer 4 year BA Hons course, with perhaps the very tight timescale for PGDE not allowing much room for this.
This is a large website with a wide range of resources on learning and teaching, including audio-visual materials, themed, interactive learning zones, and a total of resources listed, for a range of site content results by Sector, Curriculum areas, themes and type. It is a useful training and information resource for those involved in teaching, play, early learning and childcare and community learning and development.
The tables in the Appendix are interactive; therefore clicking on the headings should generate a list of relevant articles or resources on the Education Scotland website. All are copyright to Education Scotland. As they are essentially hyperlinked topics here this will not be included in the references section, but will be reproduced in the appendix of useful tables of information and links.
Glow can be accessed from anywhere at any time - in school, at home or on the move, by anyone who has a password. Access to Glow is password protected; the Glow password is an important feature and automatically connects the user with appropriate materials and resources. Through Glow children and young people can also access online game based learning, including playing existing games and designing their own games. On the website there are articles explaining the importance of using children and young people's skills and interests that they already have e.
One of the main theories in this is social constructivism. This theory argues that educators must be aware of the skills, knowledge and experiences that learners have when they come to school. The educator must see the child in the context of what they can do and what they already know in order to create learning experiences. This will take them further than viewing the child as an 'empty vessel' that needs to be passively filled with knowledge.
This framework requires the active involvement of the children in the construction of their own meaning, understanding and developing skill set. Inherent and fundamental to social constructivism is the idea that we also must appreciate that the learner does not operate in a dry theoretical vacuum but within a complex and dynamic social framework. There are links to play in a general sense across all of the areas of play in education discussed as of course both the Curriculum for Excellence CfE and the GTS teacher Registration standards link with GIRFEC , where play is included in the Wellbeing wheel, both also specifically mention outdoor learning, which also includes play.
With the overarching principles across CfE - for example, across Literacy and English, it includes "a balance of spontaneous play and planned activities" Education Scotland, CfE, n. Within experiences and outcomes indicators for CfE, a sample of five indicators are very specifically about play amongst fourteen which mention play across curriculum areas, usually at the earlier stages e. HWB a, As I play and learn, I am developing my understanding of what is fair and unfair and the importance of caring for, sharing and cooperating with others.
RME a, through play, I have explored a variety of ways of making sounds. SCN a, I make decisions and take responsibility in my everyday experiences and play, showing consideration for others. SOC a, and in real-life settings and imaginary play, I explore how local shops and services provide us with what we need in our daily lives. Within particular guidance documents for CfE , Building the Curriculum 2: Scottish Executive, , focuses on the early years and makes it clear that spontaneous play is integral to active learning, with a balance of teacher led and child led free play.
The guidance demonstrates how play is useful for transitions as well as meeting the wider Scottish government outcomes framework, and it supports the wider use of outdoor play and learning. This links closely with other Building the Curriculum papers, especially the Curriculum for Excellence through outdoor learning LTS , a , which mentions free play in the school grounds as part of wider more focused and planned outdoor learning experiences across the curriculum.
Outdoor learning is integral to children's health and wellbeing and as a form of learning which extends and deepens classroom learning, and it is expected to be an integral part of whole school and specific subject curriculum planning. There is an example given of a child enjoying the play and discovery processes involved in taking part in a Forest School.
In the Pre-birth to Three guidance, e. Further discussion covers assessing and managing risky play, ensuring that children are free to choose their own play, ensuring access to good indoor and outdoor environments for play, and creating opportunities for heuristic play. In Building the Ambition Scottish Government, the National Play Strategy is quoted: "play encompasses children's behaviour which is freely chosen, personally directed and intrinsically motivated.
The guidance states that you should "Encourage children to contribute their own ideas and be involved in decision making about their day. Three teacher training course providers responded to the follow up survey and two were already aware of Scotland's National Play Strategy Scottish Government,b and associated Action Plan Scottish Government, a.
All three covered the concept of free play in their training, and play in a variety of senses occupies a third of the course content of the Edinburgh PGDE. The results of this small sample does show that play is included and indeed is covered beyond the early years and right across the primary school years.
We also note the close associations between play and humour, fun, enjoyment and 'playfulness'" and "Extending the notion of children's rights, we examine the importance of children's ownership of their experience in school and how this supports positive attitudes towards learning.
We consider a range of 'play types' and how these can be represented in the delivery of learning" email correspondence, Summary Contents Subject index There can be little doubt that the education of the very young provides an essential foundation for all that follows, and the nature of that education is critical.
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Want this question answered? Study guides. Classical Music. Where was the Star Spangled Banner written. What is a Suite. What musical instrument did Leonard Bernstein play. What is it called when a number of different rhythms are played at the same time. Q: What year did Tina Bruce write the 12 features of play?
Write your answer Still have questions? Find more answers Ask your question. Related questions. What is Tina Bruce theory on play? What instrument does Tina Turner play? Does Bruce Springsteen play saxophone? What is play flow?
Did paul schaefer on letterman ever play with Bruce Springsteen? Identify the features of a play? What is free flow play? What are the features of tin pan alley? Who play drums in just call me Harvey? What features are in a play? Did jack Bruce play on ? What does Ben Bruce play in Asking Alexandria?
People also asked. Study Guides. Trending Questions. This is another feature that I have to question. Despite seeing role play a lot throughout the children's normal day at school, I believe that they are acting out what they are witnessing and being told by others. Children act out being cops and robbers, teachers and mothers, now some of this may well be true in the future which is where I do agree with her feature, however not all children will grow up to be teachers and not all be will be cops, therefore this despite being partially true is also partially wrong in my opinion.
Now I believe that the 6 th and 9 th feature can be linked. The reason I believe these can be linked is that if the child would like to play with three activities in a certain order and is determined then he may be left alone to do so. Now from my experience this does not seem to affect the child so long as they are able to complete their activities, in my opinion I believe that there is nothing wrong with a child doing so a long as they have fun and it is not consistent as socialization is something that is needed a lot.
This feature is something that you will see a lot of while child play. They will pretend to be hurt, pretend to be someone else or even just pretend through their acting. I believe that enabling a child to do this by providing costumes and different sorts of resources so their play can be more realistic will help a child build their confidence. I found that a child in my placement was shy to talk to me, however when she was pretending to be her mummy while cooking in the home corner she was able to talk to me and really show her personality a lot better, therefore I believe that supporting this feature would benefit the children.
This is something I saw a lot of throughout my placement. A lot of the children would play in groups and the majority of the class would approach me at some point of the day asking to play or carry out a certain activity. One thing I did find is that this approach does not apply to all the children.
Some of the children preferred to play solitarily and only played in groups when asked to, however as the feature says they would do so cooperatively. One of the children in my placement was carrying out an activity where they were making a giant teddy collage.
The young boy stayed at the activity for half of the day and did not move even when he was asked to join others on another activity. This is a prime example of what Tina Bruce meant by this feature and it is something that I totally agree with. If a child has picked up a new skill and is confident about it they will show everyone with confidence and will ensure that everyone is aware of their skill. This is something that I believe is good for the children and is something that I saw several times.
A young boy did an observational drawing which the teacher was really pleased with. The boy then went and showed all his friends and asked them if they would like him to show them how he did it. I believe this is fantastic in building the children's confidence and self-esteem.
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